Measuring Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity has historically required complex, intimidating and immovable equipment costing thousands of dollars. On Time Pediatrics along with Dr. Covington, who is a member of  the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, is unlocking a new world of solutions for treatment, therapeutic protocols, monitoring, education, and entertainment with  research-grade, mobile, embeddable EEG biosensor solutions. 



What is an EEG?

An electroencephalogram detects abnormalities in the brain waves or electrical activity of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes consisting of small metal discs with thin wires are pasted on the scalp. The electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of the brain cells. The charges are amplified and appear as a graph on a computer screen or as a recording that may be printed out on paper. Your doctor then interprets the reading.

Related procedures that may be performed are evoked potential studies. These studies are used to measure electrical activity in the brain in response to stimulation of sight, sound, or touch. Please see this procedure for additional information.


Definition of Neurofeedback

Like other forms of biofeedback, NFT uses monitoring devices to provide moment-to-moment information to an individual on the state of their physiological functioning.  The characteristic that distinguishes NFT from other biofeedback is a focus on the central nervous system and the brain.  Neurofeedback training (NFT) has its foundations in basic and applied neuroscience as well as data-based clinical practice.  It takes into account behavioral, cognitive, and subjective aspects as well as brain activity. 

NFT is preceded by an objective assessment of brain activity and psychological status.  During training, sensors are placed on the scalp and then connected to sensitive electronics and computer software that detect, amplify, and record specific brain activity.  Resulting information is fed back to the trainee virtually instantaneously with the conceptual understanding that changes in the feedback signal indicate whether or not the trainee's brain activity is within the designated range.  Based on this feedback, various principles of learning, and practitioner guidance, changes in brain patterns occur and are associated with positive changes in physical, emotional, and cognitive states.  Often the trainee is not consciously aware of the mechanisms by which such changes are accomplished although people routinely acquire a "felt sense" of these positive changes and often are able to access these states outside the feedback session. 

NFT does not involve either surgery or medication and is neither painful nor embarassing.  When provided by a licensed professional with appropriate training, generally trainees do not experience negative side-effects.  Typically trainees find NFT to be an interesting experience. Neurofeedback operates at a brain functional level and transcends the need to classify using existing diagnostic categories.  It modulates the brain activity at the level of the neuronal dynamics of excitation and inhibition which underly the characteristic effects that are reported. 

Research demonstrates that neurofeedback is an effective intervention for ADHD and Epilepsy. Ongoing research is investigating the effectiveness of neurofeedback for other disorders such as Autism, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, substance abuse, TBI and other pain disorders, and is promising.

Being a self-regulation method, NFT differs from other accepted research-consistent neuro-modulatory approaches such as audio-visual entrainment (AVE) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) that provoke an automatic brain response by presenting a specific signal.  Nor is NFT based on deliberate changes in breathing patterns such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) that can result in changes in brain waves.  At a neuronal level, NFT teaches the brain to modulate excitatory and inhibitory patterns of specific neuronal assemblies and pathways based upon the details of the sensor placement and the feedback algorithms used thereby increasing flexibility and self-regulation of relaxation and activation patterns. 


Different Types of Brain Waves


While these are the universally recognized frequency ranges that researchers tend to follow, many scholars use their own specific range boundaries depending on the frequencies they choose to focus on. Additionally, some researchers define the bands using decimal values rather than rounding to whole numbers (for example, one researcher may define the lower Beta band cut-off as 12.1, while another may use the value 13), while still others sometimes divide the bands into sub bands for the purposes of data analysis.


Wave patterns


Delta waves.

     Delta is the frequency range up to 4 Hz. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. It is seen normally in adults in slow wave sleep. It is also seen normally in babies. It may occur focally with subcortical lesions and in general distribution with diffuse lesions, metabolic encephalopathy hydrocephalus or deep midline lesions. It is usually most prominent frontally in adults (e.g. FIRDA - Frontal Intermittent Rhythmic Delta) and posteriorly in children (e.g. OIRDA - Occipital Intermittent Rhythmic Delta).


Theta waves

     Theta is the frequency range from 4 Hz to 7 Hz. Theta is seen normally in young children. It may be seen in drowsiness or arousal in older children and adults; it can also be seen in meditation. Excess theta for age represents abnormal activity. It can be seen as a focal disturbance in focal subcortical lesions; it can be seen in generalized distribution in diffuse disorder or metabolic encephalopathy or deep midline disorders or some instances of hydrocephalus. On the contrary this range has been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states.


Alpha waves

     Alpha is the frequency range from 7 Hz to 14 Hz. Hans Berger named the first rhythmic EEG activity he saw as the "alpha wave". This was the "posterior basic rhythm" (also called the "posterior dominant rhythm" or the "posterior alpha rhythm"), seen in the posterior regions of the head on both sides, higher in amplitude on the dominant side. It emerges with closing of the eyes and with relaxation, and attenuates with eye opening or mental exertion. The posterior basic rhythm is actually slower than 8 Hz in young children (therefore technically in the theta range). 


Sensorimotor Rhythm aka Mu rhythm

     In addition to the posterior basic rhythm, there are other normal alpha rhythms such as the mu rhythm (alpha activity in the contralateral sensory and motor cortical areas) that emerges when the hands and arms are idle; and the "third rhythm" (alpha activity in the temporal or frontal lobes). Alpha can be abnormal; for example, an EEG that has diffuse alpha occurring in coma and is not responsive to external stimuli is referred to as "alpha coma".


Beta waves

     Beta is the frequency range from 15 Hz to about 30 Hz. It is seen usually on both sides in symmetrical distribution and is most evident frontally. Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements. Low amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. Rhythmic beta with a dominant set of frequencies is associated with various pathologies and drug effects, especially benzodiazepines. It may be absent or reduced in areas of cortical damage. It is the dominant rhythm in patients who are alert or anxious or who have their eyes open.


Gamma waves

Gamma is the frequency range approximately 30–100 Hz. Gamma rhythms are thought to represent binding of different populations of neurons together into a network for the purpose of carrying out a certain cognitive or motor function.


© 2019 by The International Institute of Therapeutic Intervention and Learning  -  Washington, DC/Maryland